Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near the city of Junnar in Pune district on 6 April 1627 or 19 Feb. 1630. The Government of Maharashtra accepts 19 February 1630 as his birthdate, other suggested dates include 6 April 1627 or other dates near this day. Per legend, his mother named him Shivaji in honour of the goddess Shivai, to whom she had prayed for a healthy child.Shivaji was named after this local deity. Shivaji’s father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates. His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed.
Shivaji grew up with great devotion and love towards his mother. Shivaji was trained at Banglore, along with his brother, under the supervision of Shahaji, and later on, at Pune, under the supervision of his mother. Tarikh-i-Shivaji states that Dadoji Konddev trained Shivaji personally, and also appointed an excellent teacher for him. In a short time, Shivaji became a skilled fighter and a good horse-rider. The military commanders Kanhoji Jedhe and Baji Pasalkar were appointed to train Shivaji in martial arts. Gomaji Naik Pansambal taught him swordsmanship, and later served as his military advisor.Shivaji had mastered the two great Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, by listening to recitations and story-tellings. The noble examples mentioned in the epics greatly impressed his young mind. He was deeply interested in religious teachings, and sought the society of Hindu and Muslim saints wherever he went.
Shivaji was influenced by the problem his people faced by their rulers and he gathered young people and started revolt, this was the begining, later on his group of followers became his army, he increased the number of his army. Shivaji was later considered king of that area later he began to defend the country from invaders and inefficient and ruthless kings.Shivaji was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674.Shivaji was entitled Shakakarta (“founder of an era”) and Kshatriya Kulavantas (“head of Kshatriyas”), and Chhatrapati (“paramount sovereign”). He also took the title of “Haindava Dharmodhhaarak”.His mother Jijabai died on 18 June 1674, within a few days of the coronation. Considering this a bad omen, a second coronation was carried out 24 September 1674, this time according to the Bengali school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri.
Shivaji demonstrated great skill in creating his military organisation, which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He also built a powerful navy. Maynak Bhandari was one of the first chiefs of the Maratha Navy under Shivaji, and helped in both building the Maratha Navy and safeguarding the coastline of the emerging Maratha Empire. He built new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijaydurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions, then known as ganimi kava.Shivaji realised the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi’s fleet. His strategy was to build a strong navy to protect and bolster his kingdom. He was also concerned about the growing dominance of British Indian naval forces in regional waters and actively sought to resist it. For this reason he is also referred to as the “Father of Indian Navy”.
Shivaji died on April 3, 1680. He was 50 years of age during his time of death. He died at Raigad due to high fever for three weeks. It was due to various risk factors like tension, depression, over load, etc. according to Shivaji Maharaj’s history. But the actual cause of Shivaji Maharaj’s death is “VISHAM JWARA” which is TYPHOID.But even Today, Shivaji is considered as a national hero in India, especially in the state of Maharashtra, where he remains arguably the greatest figure in the state’s history. Stories of his life form an integral part of the upbringing and identity of the Marathi people. Further, he is also recognised as a warrior legend, who sowed the seeds of Indian independence. Nineteenth century Hindu revivalist Swami Vivekananda considered Shivaji a hero and paid glowing tributes to his wisdom.Shivaji remains a political icon in modern India, and particularly in the state of Maharashtra.